Tense In English (2020)

raviraj nag
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TENSE IN ENGLISH (Time)

What is Tense in english

Types of tense in english

  1. Past tense
  2. present tense
  3. Future Tense

1-Past tense in English

a) Past Indefinite

b) Past Continuous

c) Past Perfect

d) Past Perfect Continuous

2-Present tense in English

a) Present Indefinite

b) Present Continuous

c) Present Perfect

d) Present Perfect Continuous

3-Future Tense In English

a) Future Indifinite

b) future Continuous

c) future Perfect

d) Future Perfect continuous

(Verb) Tense in English Grammar

→Verb

1-Main Verb- mainly 3 Forms

Overall 5 Forms

2-Auxilary Verb/Helping Verb

v1 v2 v3 v4 v5
Present form Past Form Past Participle present participle present form
(Plural) (-ing) (Singular)

(s/es)

(play) (Plays)

 

1- Present Tesne in English

  • Simple Present Tense-
  1. Affirmative

structure-  [s+v1/v5+o]

sub(singular)→obj(singular)→(v5        s/es)

[he,she,it,proper noun(any name)]

sub(plural)→v1

[we,you,they,I]

I is exception

Example-

  • he play football
  • I play football
  • we learn english

B-Negative

No-use in starting

Not-use in 3rd place

Never-use in start of main verb

structure-[s + do/does + not +v1 +o]

  • H.V (do/does)→v1
  • sub(singular)→H.V. (does)
  • sub(plural)→H.V. (do)

Example-She does not speak hindi

I do not Know you

C-Interrogative

If helping verb is use in starting of subject than will be ? use in last.

structure-[do/does + s + v1 + o + ?]

Example- Do you understand english?

Does she play Football?

D- Interrogative Negative

structure- [H.V. + subject + not + v1 + o + ?]

  • Present Continuous Tense

⇒Any action going on at present

A- Affirmative

structure – [s + is/am/are + v4 + o]

sub(singular)→H.V.(is)

(he,she,it,any name)

sub(plural)→H.V. (are)

(we, you, they)

sub (I)→H.V. (am)

example

  • she is listening to the radio.
  • They are playing football.
  • I am waiting for the bus.

B- Negative

structure- [s + is/am/are + not + v4 + o]

example

  • he iss not paying attention to his studies
  • I am not waiting for anyone
  • we are not wasting our time.

C- Interrogative

structure- [is/am/are + s + v4 + o + ?]

Example-

  • are you preparing of the exam?
  • Is he talking to his friend?
  • Am I disturbing you?

Present Perfect tense

A- Affirmative

structure- [s + has/have + v3 + o]

sub(singular)→H.V.(has)

{he,she,it any name}

sub (plural)→H.V.(have)

{we,you,they, I}

example-

  • I have read this novel
  • he has reached home.
  • we have seen this movie.

B- Negative

structure- [s + has/have + not + v3 + o]

example-

  • He has not come to school.
  • she has not done her homework.
  • we have not finished the chapter.

C- Interrogative

structure- [has/have + s + v3 + o + ?]

Example-

  • Have you read this novel ?
  • Has he come to school ?
  • has she done her home work today ?

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Since-

For-

A- Affirmative

structure- [s + has/have +been +v4 + o + since/for]

example-

  • he has been studying since morning.
  • she has been waiting for the car for an hour.

B- Negative

structure- [s + has/have + not + been + v4 + o + since/for]

example-she has not been going to school for a week.

C- Interrogative

structure- [has/have + s + been + v4 + o + since/for]

example- have you been attending my lecture since 6 o’clock.

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2- Past Tense in English

Simple Past Tense

A-Affirmative

structure- [s + v2 + o]

example-

  • She sang a sweet song.
  • I work him a letter.
  • we saw her yesterday.

B-Negative

structure- [subject + did + not + v1 + o]

H.V.(do/does/did)→v1

example-

  • He did not agree with me.
  • She did not go to school.

C- Interrogative

structure- [did + subject + v1 + o + ?]

example-

  • Did you call me ?
  • Did she eat her foof ?

Past continuous Tense

⇒Any action that was going on in the past.

A- Affirmative

structure- [s + was/were + v4 + o]

sub(singular)→H.V.(was)

{he, she, it, I, Proper Noun}

sub(plural)→H.V.(were)

{we, you, they}

example-

  • She was singing a song.
  • They were waiting ffor me.

B- Negative

structure- [s + was/were + not + v4 + o]

example-

  • she was not listening to me.
  • we were not paying attention to our studies.
  • I was not talking to anyone in the class.

C- Interrogative

structure- [was/were + s + v4 + o + ?]

example-

  • was he preparing for the exam?
  • were you waiting for me ?
  • Past Perfect Tense 

⇒any action that started in the past and finished in the past.

A- affirmative

structure- [s + had + v3 + o]

example-

  • she had finished all the work.
  • he had solved all the sums.
  • I had warned him.

B- Negative

structure- [s + had +not + v3 + o]

example-

  • He had not followed my advice.
  • She had not gone to school.

C- Interrogative

structure- [Had + s + v3 + o + ?]

example-

  • had You followed my advice?
  • Had she prepared the foof ?

Past perfect Continuous tense In English

⇒Any action that was going on in the past and the time was mentioned.

A- Affirmative

structure- [s+ had + been + v4 + o + since/for]

example-

  • She had been watching TV since morning.
  • I had been waiting for him for an hour.

B- negative

structure [s + had + not + been + v4 + o + since/for]

example-

  • She had not been going to college for a week.
  • We had not been studying since afternoon.

C- Interrogative

structure- [had + s + been + v4 + o + since/for + ?]

example-

  • had you been waiting for me for an hour ?
  • Had she been reading the novel since afternoon ?
3-Future tense in English

simple Future tense

⇒To express simple actions of future.

A- Affirmative

structure- [s + will/shall + v1 + o]

B- negative

structure- [s + will/shall + not + v1 + o]

Note⇒

Future tense subject use
affirmative or negative I,We Will,Shall / Shall, We

Example-

  • I will buy a car.
  • We shall go to cinema.
  • I will not buy a car.
  • I shall buy a car.
  • we shall not go to cinema.

C- Interrogative

structure- [will/shall + s + v1 + o + ?]

Note⇒

Future tense Subject Use
Interrogative I, We Shall

Example-

  • Will you help me ? (write)
  • Will I pass this exam? (wrong)
  • Shall I pass this exam ? (write)
  • Shall we go to cinema ? (write)

Future continuous Tense in English

⇒Any action that will be going on in future.

A- Affirmative

structure- [s + will/shall + be + v4 + o]

example-

  • She will be listening to the radio.
  • He will be reading a novel.

B- Negative

structue-[s +will/shall + not + be +v4 + o]

example-

  • he will not be paying attention to his studies.
  • she will not be doing any work.

C- Interrogative

structure- [will/shall + s + be +v4 + o + ?]

example- will he be waiting for me ?

Future Perfect Tense

⇒Any action which will be completed in future.

A- affirmative

structure- [s + will/shall + havee + v3 + o]

example-

  • He will have solved all the questions.
  • She will have finished the work.

B – Negative

structure- [s + will/shall + not + have + v3 + o]

example-

  • she will not have gone to school.
  • He will not have followed my advice.

C- Interrogative

structure [will/shall + s + have + v3 + o + ?]

example-

  • will he have passed the exam?
  • Shall I have finished the topic?

Future Perfect Continuous tense

A- Affirmative

structure-[s + will/shall + have + been + v4 + o + since/for]

example-she will have been watching movies since morning.

B- Negative

structure- [s + will/shall +not + have + been + v4 + o +since/for]

example-

  • she will not have been going to school for a week.
  • He will not have been paying attention to his studies for a long time.

C – Interrogative.

structure-[will/shall + s + have + been + v4 + o + since/for]

example-

  • will she have been waiting for me for an hour ?
  • will they have been playing football since evening ?

 

 

Important Rules

Rule 1-  Keywords

Hardly,scarcely,rarely,

seldom,always,never,Usually,

Frequently,occasionally,generally,

often,everyday,everyweek,

everymonth,everyyear,everysunday etc.

example

  • she always gets up early in the morning
  • He never tells a lie

rule 2 Universal truths

  • the sun rises in the east
  • The sun set in  the west
  • the earth revolves round the sun.

Rule 3 Scientific facts

  • water boils at 100 degree c
  • water freezes at 0 degree c

rule 4 – Proverb

  • two and two make four barking dogs  seldom bite.

Rule5- TV or radio commentaries

  • Dhoni hits the ball and takes a single

Rule6 Newspaper headlines

  • petrol prices rises from midnight
  • India wins T20 world cup
rule7- planned/Scheduled action of future
  • The prime minister arrives Jaipur tomorrow
  • she goes to England for her higher studies next month.
  • in→january/february
  • on→monday/tuesday                  ⇒         v1/v5
  • next→week/month/year

Rule8 Possesion

  • He belongs to India
  • this book belongs to me
  • I have a car

rule9 Habitual aactivites

  • she always speaks the truth 
  • He never tells a lie
  • we go to cinema everyweek

Rule 10 – If sentence is start here or There also present indefinite

  • Here comes my friend
  • here come my friends
  • there goes the bus

Present continuous tense in english

rule1 keyword

now,right now, presently,

at present,these days,

now a days, at the moment, this moment,

this morning,this evening,currently,etc.

example-

  • he  is doing his homework now
  • the are living in Delhi these days
  • presently I am pursuing my graduation

rule2 a few verbs re generally not used in there progressive/v4 form

Instead they are used in v1/v5 forms

verbs- she, hear,feel,smell,think,hope,believe,

understand,seem,appear,love,hate,

like,dislike,

  • a) I am understanding your problem(wrong)
  • b) I understand your problem(right)
  • c) I am not believing you(wrong)
  • d) I don’t believe you(right)
  • e) I am hearing a noise outside (wrong)
  • f) I hear a noise outside(right)
  • Note-  The judge is hearing the case(right)

Rule 3- unfavourable habits/Negative habits → present continuous tense

  • she always gets up early in the morning (general habits)
  • she is always getting up late in the morning (negative habits)
  • he is always coming late in the school
  • you are always telling lies

structure- [s + is/am/are + always + v4 + o]

rule4 future  actions

  • the movie is releasing this friday
  • he is coming home next week
Present perfect tense in english

rule1- keywords

just,just now, already,recently

  • He has just returned home 
  • I have already read this novel
  • he always speaks the truth 
  • He has always spoken the truth
  • she has never told a lie

Rule 2- since/for

  • a) I have been living in Delhi  for three years
  • b)I have lived in Delhi for two yearrs
  • c)I have no  seen  her since monday

Rule 3- yet

  • He has not returned home yet.
  • you have not returned my book yet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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